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Brain regions and their functions





Brain regions and their functions

Explore the anatomy of the brain regions by exploring its various areas, each with a well-defined function.

The brain is an astonishing organ of just 1.5 kg (in adults), but it controls all the functions of the body with specific brain regions. It also interprets information from the outside world and represents the mental center of every individual: intelligence, emotions, creativity, but above all memory. The brain is not only one of the most important organs in the human body, it is also the most complex. Made up of four lobes and two hemispheres, each of these brain regions has specific functions.


VERTICAL CUT OF A BRAIN

The vertical cutout of the brain separates the left cerebral hemisphere from the right and allows them to be studied in detail. These are connected to each other by the corpus callosum.

Brain regions: The left hemisphere and its function

The left hemisphere performs all tasks related to logic, such as science and math.

For example, during a discussion (which uses the function of language) or during a lesson while listening to the teacher, the left hemisphere records and assimilates all the information transmitted.

The left hemisphere is in control of the right side of the body.

Brain regions: The right hemisphere and its function

The right hemisphere is our "creative brain". He is involved in reverie and imagination.

You use that part of your brain when you draw or use your creativity.

As you would understand, the right hemisphere is in control of the left side of the body.



HORIZONTAL CUT OF THE BRAIN

The horizontal section of the brain makes it possible to locate these different areas in order to study its anatomy and general morphology. This process provides an overview of the functioning of each part, their structure and their role.

THE ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN REGIONS IN SUMMARY

To help you quickly find your way around the anatomy of the brain regions, we've provided a brief overview of these main components and their functions.


The cerebellum

The cerebellum (also called the small brain) is responsible for several physical tasks, such as:

Movement

The balance

The posture

And coordination

Although smaller in size, the cerebellum contains more neurons than the entire brain.

The limbic system

This brain region Called the "emotional brain," the limbic system is made up of four glands located inside the brain. The glands help express emotions and regulate hormonal responses.

The brainstem

The brainstem is considered by many to be the most important part of the entire brain and nervous system. It is connected to the spine and sends messages to all parts of the body. Every physical movement is done to some extent from the brainstem. Even basic functions such as heartbeat and breathing initially originate from this part of the brain region.

The thalamus

The thalamus is the area of the brain that sits above the brainstem, between the cerebral cortex and the midbrain. It thus has many nerve connections between these two neighboring parts. The main function of the thalamus is to relay motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex.

The cerebellum

The cerebellum is the brain region that collects all the information transmitted by the sensory system, the spinal cord and other parts of the brain regions. It also plays the role of regulator of motor movements. He thus coordinates all the movements such as:

the posture

the balance

the coordination

the speech


The cortex

The cortex makes up the largest part of the brain regions. Associated with higher functions, such as thinking and cognitive actions, it is divided into four sections (called lobes). Each contributes differently to the functioning of the human body.

The lobes and their functions

The cerebral cortex can be divided into four parts, called lobes. The frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe have been associated with different essential functions and memorization.

The frontal lobe

At the level of the frontal lobe, are the higher executive functions:

Emotional regulation

Planning

The reasoning

Problem solving

The parietal lobe

All areas located in the parietal lobe are responsible for assimilating sensory information from different areas of the body. These are transmitted to the brain through touch (temperature, pressure and pain).

The occipital lobe

The occipital lobe of the brain processes all visual information (transmitted by the eyes). This information is then processed, interpreted and relayed to the different areas of the brain.

The temporal lobe

The temporal lobe processes several information (auditory, visual, etc.), and will form the memories related to these events.



BRAIN DISORDERS BY BRAIN REGIONS

Because different areas of the brain control specific functions, the location of the brain injury determines the type of brain dysfunction that results. This is because most functions (such as memory) require the coordination of several areas in both hemispheres. These disorders can therefore easily be linked to a specific region of the brain.

The lesions of the frontal lobe cause a loss of the aptitudes to solve certain problems of the daily life and to program certain actions (driving a car, answering riddles, going to an appointment, etc.).

Lesions of the parietal lobe cause loss of sensation in part of the body. Often, individuals affected by this type of disorder lose some ability to recognize shapes or perceive certain sensations.

Damage to the temporal lobe causes loss of auditory memory and makes it difficult to remember certain words and understand familiar language.

Damage to the occipital lobe often causes cortical blindness (the loss of some essential eye functions). In the worst case, it can even cause hallucinations.

Lesions of the limbic lobes cause loss of control over emotions and difficulty in staying lucid (on decisions and the perception of things).



ZONES OF THE BRAIN THAT ARE USED FOR MEMORY

According to Jean-Michel Jakobowicz in his book My bible of memory and the brain:

"We know for a fact that without memory there would be no knowledge, and arguably very little intelligence. Thanks to memory, we can use the past to understand the present and anticipate the future … however, there is not just one, but several types of memories. "

There are several types of memory (auditory memory, short or long term memory, semantic memory, visual memory, etc.), and this explicitly implies that each of our memories is not stored in only one part of the brain. When events accumulate, the brain has a unique, yet effective filing, filtration, and memorization system.

The hippocampus, neocortex and amygdala are the brain regions mobilized for explicit or declarative memories (events, information to remember, etc.).

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum work together for implicit memories.

And the prefrontal cortex will take care of retaining everything related to short-term working memory.

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