Psychology of education is a branch of psychology the object of study of which concerns the forms in which human learning takes place in educational centers. Thus, Psychology of education is concerned with how students (pupils) learn and the whole process.
It should be mentioned that Psychology of education provides solutions to curriculum development, educational management, educational models and cognitive science in general.
With the aim of understanding the main features of learning during childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age, educational psychologists develop and implement several theories of human development, which are considered stages of maturity.
In this sense, Jean Piaget had a great influence on Psychology of education, with his theory which defends those children go through four different stages of cognitive capacity during their growth until they reach abstract logical thinking from the start. eleven years old.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral development and Rudolf Steiner’s model of child development are other essential inputs in the development of this psychology.
Educational psychologists take into account the different characteristics and abilities of each person. These differences are fostered with lifelong development and learning, which is reflected in intelligence, creativity, motivation and communication skills, for example.
In addition, there are many possible disabilities in children who are in school, such as attention deficit disorder and dyslexia, among many others.
The American Psychological Association (APA) published a report under the Coalition for Psychology in Schools and Education titled Top 20 Principles from Psychology for PreK-13 Teaching and Learning.
Teachers and student support staff can learn from the 20 principles presented in this document. Divided into 5 sections, these principles relating to psychology and development respond to frequent questions from teachers. In the report, each of the principles is described and its relevance in the classroom is discussed. The scientific data on which they are based are also provided. Here is the list:
Students' beliefs and perceptions about intelligence and skills affect their cognitive functioning and learning.
What students already know influences their learning.
The cognitive development and learning of students is not limited to the general stages of development.
Learning is context specific; the generalization of learning to new contexts is therefore not automatic and must be facilitated.
The acquisition of knowledge and skills over the long term depends largely on training.
Clear, explicit and contingent feedback is important for learning.
Student self-regulation supports learning; self-regulation strategies are learned.
Students' creativity can be fostered.
Students enjoy learning more and perform better when their motivation is more intrinsic than extrinsic.
Students persevere in the face of challenges and process information in more depth when setting goals for understanding rather than performance.
Teachers' expectations of their learners influence their learning opportunities, their motivation and their results.
Setting short-term goals that are specific and pose a moderate challenge increases motivation more than setting more general and overly challenging long-term goals.
Learning takes place in multiple social contexts.
Interpersonal relationships and communication are critical to both the teaching-learning process and the socio-emotional development of students.
Emotional well-being influences academic performance, learning and development.
Social interactions and expected classroom behaviors can be taught using recognized behavioral principles and effective classroom instruction.
Effective classroom management is based on setting high expectations, the constant concern for maintaining a positive classroom climate, and the high level of support offered to students.
Both formative and summative evaluations are important and each require different approaches and interpretations.
Learners' knowledge and skills are best measured using assessment procedures rooted in social psychology with well-defined standards of quality and equity.
The proper analysis of assessment data relies on a clear, appropriate and fair interpretation.